Lisa Montgomery is expected to receive lethal injection on December 8, the Justice Department says. In 2004, she was convicted of strangling a Missouri woman who was eight-months pregnant, then cut out and kidnapped the baby.
Also in 1953, Ethel Rosenberg was famously executed for espionage, along with her husband, Julius.
The ninth execution will be Brandon Bernard, who was convicted of killing two youth ministers on a military reservation in Texas in 1999. He is scheduled to be executed by lethal injection on December 10.
Both Montgomery and Bernard are held at the federal prison in Terre Haute, Indiana.
Before this year, the federal government had not executed anyone since 2003, and just four people since the 1960, Bureau of Prisons records show.
Attorneys for Montgomery and Bernard said executing them would be unjust.
Kelley Henry said Montgomery, her client, is mentally ill, suffered horrible childhood abuse, and had poor representation at trial.
Bernard is a peaceable prisoner who was 18 at the time of the killings and had no violent record, said his attorney Robert C. Owen.
Christina Carrega contriubuted to this report.