Minister of Home Affairs Amit Shah said he was tested after developing symptoms of Covid-19 and has been admitted to a Delhi hospital.
"I got the test done and was found positive," the 55-year-old minister said in a tweet, adding that he asked those who have been in contact with him in the past few days to isolate and be tested.
India has the third-highest number of virus cases worldwide. It has recorded more than 1.7 million infections and 37,364 deaths as of Sunday, according to a tally by Johns Hopkins University. Only two other countries -- the United States and Brazil -- have recorded more than 1 million cases.
Mumbai, India's financial capital with a population of more than 12 million, has reported more than 115,000 cases as of Saturday evening, including at least 6,180 deaths. The city is in Maharashtra, the worst-hit state in India with more than 416,000 confirmed cases and at least 15,300 deaths, according to official statistics.
India has a relatively low Covid-19 mortality rate per capita compared to other hard-hit countries, with only 2.47 deaths per 100,000, compared with 45.24 in the US and 68.95 in the United Kingdom, according to Johns Hopkins University data. Experts have pointed to India's relatively young population as a possible explanation for the lower mortality rate, as young are less likely to die from coronavirus.
CNN's Rishabh Pratap reported from Delhi, Ivana Kottasova wrote from London.