How Trump’s Trade War Went From 18 Products to 10,000

 nytimes.com  7/11/2018 2:26:15 PM   Keith Collins and Jasmine C. Lee

The war began when the United States imposed tariffs on solar panels and washing machines. Each circle above represents a product on which a tariff has been placed and is sized according to how much was imported last year.

The United States then put tariffs on steel and aluminum, arguing that unfair trade practices threatened American manufacturers — and thus national security. The European Union, Canada and Mexico were initially exempted.

A focus of the tariffs was China, which has been accused of flooding the world with cheap metal. China retaliated with duties on about $3 billion in American products.

With the possibility that exemptions might go away, the European Union threatened to retaliate with tariffs on $7.1 billion worth of goods from the United States, a portion of which went into effect in June.

Canada then entered the fight, announcing tariffs on about $12.8 billion in American goods. They took effect on July 1, singling out even more products than originally announced.

Mexico also retaliated, targeting more than $3 billion in American steel, pork, cheese and other products.

But China was still a point of focus. As negotiations stalled, the United States said it would impose tariffs on $50 billion in additional Chinese goods, the majority of which took effect on July 6.

China responded in kind, announcing tariffs on $50 billion in additional American goods. The first batch took effect moments after the American tariffs went into place.

The United States then proposed even more tariffs on $200 billion in Chinese products. President Trump has said he’s prepared to impose tariffs on another $200 billion on top of that.

Jan. 22The war began when the United States imposed tariffs on solar panels and washing machines. Each circle above represents a product on which a tariff has been placed and is sized according to how much was imported last year.

March 8The United States then put tariffs on steel and aluminum, arguing that unfair trade practices threatened American manufacturers — and thus national security. The European Union, Canada and Mexico were initially exempted.

April 2A focus of the tariffs was China, which has been accused of flooding the world with cheap metal. China retaliated with duties on about $3 billion in American products.

May 18With the possibility that exemptions might go away, the European Union threatened to retaliate with tariffs on $7.1 billion worth of goods from the United States, a portion of which went into effect in June.

May 31Canada then entered the fight, announcing tariffs on about $12.8 billion in American goods. They took effect on July 1, singling out even more products than originally announced.

June 5Mexico also retaliated, targeting more than $3 billion in American steel, pork, cheese and other products.

June 15But China was still a point of focus. As negotiations stalled, the United States said it would impose tariffs on $50 billion in additional Chinese goods, the majority of which took effect on July 6.

June 15China responded in kind, announcing tariffs on $50 billion in additional American goods. The first batch took effect moments after the American tariffs went into place.

July 10The United States then proposed even more tariffs on $200 billion in Chinese products. President Trump has said he’s prepared to impose tariffs on another $200 billion on top of that.

The dispute now includes about 10,000 products traded around the world, and could grow to target almost 90 percent of what China sent to the United States last year.

If the dispute continues, it could have a lasting impact on the global economy. Markets have been rattled, and companies have been forced to reshape their operations, raising the possibility of higher prices for businesses and consumers.

For now, neither the United States nor China has shown signs of backing down.

Note: Circles represent commodities on which countries have imposed tariffs; their sizes are based on the dollar value of imports of those commodities in 2017. Some commodities on which countries imposed tariffs were not imported to those countries in 2017, and are therefore not shown. In cases where countries released categories of products, all imports of products that fall within those categories have been included. The value of China’s imports is based on exports from the United States to China in 2017, as China had not published its full list of imports for 2017 at the time of publication. Except for China, the value of each country’s imports is based on its published records from 2017. For the United States, the value includes imports from China, the European Union, Canada, Mexico, Japan and South Korea.

Sources: Commodity data from government releases; import and export data from IHS Markit’s Global Trade Atlas. Specific solar products, washing machines, steel and aluminum products subject to tariffs by the United States are based on an analysis by IHS Markit as well as government publications.

Additional work by Adam Pearce, Karl Russell, Jugal Patel, Larry Buchanan and Josh Williams.

Products coming
into the U.S.
U.S. products
going abroad

The dispute now includes about 10,000 products traded around the world, and could grow to target almost 90 percent of what China sent to the United States last year.

If the dispute continues, it could have a lasting impact on the global economy. Markets have been rattled, and companies have been forced to reshape their operations, raising the possibility of higher prices for businesses and consumers.

For now, neither the United States nor China has shown signs of backing down.

Note: Circles represent commodities on which countries have imposed tariffs; their sizes are based on the dollar value of imports of those commodities in 2017. Some commodities on which countries imposed tariffs were not imported to those countries in 2017, and are therefore not shown. In cases where countries released categories of products, all imports of products that fall within those categories have been included. The value of China’s imports is based on exports from the United States to China in 2017, as China had not published its full list of imports for 2017 at the time of publication. Except for China, the value of each country’s imports is based on its published records from 2017. For the United States, the value includes imports from China, the European Union, Canada, Mexico, Japan and South Korea.

Sources: Commodity data from government releases; import and export data from IHS Markit’s Global Trade Atlas. Specific solar products, washing machines, steel and aluminum products subject to tariffs by the United States are based on an analysis by IHS Markit as well as government publications.

Additional work by Adam Pearce, Karl Russell, Jugal Patel, Larry Buchanan and Josh Williams.

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