China launches mission to the dark side of the Moon

 abc.net.au  12/8/2018 1:17:53 AM 

Updated December 08, 2018 12:35:12

China has launched a ground-breaking mission to land a spacecraft on the largely unexplored far side of the Moon, demonstrating its growing ambitions as a space power to rival Russia, the European Union and US.

Key points

  • The Chang'e 4 is a lander-rover combination which will explore above and below the lunar surface
  • It is expected to make a 27-day journey to the South Pole-Aitken basin's Von Karman crater
  • China aims to send the Chang'e 5 probe to the Moon next year

A Long March 3B rocket carrying a lunar probe blasted off from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in Sichuan Province in south-western China, the official Xinhua News Agency said.

The Moon's far side is also known as the dark side because it faces away from Earth and remains comparatively unknown. It has a different composition to sites on the near side, where previous missions have landed.

If successful, the Chang'e 4 mission would propel the Chinese space program to a leading position in one of the most important areas of lunar exploration.

China landed its Yutu, or "Jade Rabbit" rover on the Moon five years ago and plans to send its Chang'e 5 probe there next year and have it return to Earth with samples — the first time that will have been done since 1976.

A crewed lunar mission is also under consideration.

Chang'e 4 is a lander-rover combination and will explore both above and below the lunar surface after arriving at the South Pole-Aitken basin's Von Karman crater following a 27-day journey.

It will also perform radio-astronomical studies that, because the far side always faces away from Earth, will be "free from interference from our planet's ionosphere, human-made radio frequencies and auroral radiation noise," space industry expert Leonard David wrote on the website Space.com.

Chang'e moon missions

  • Chang'e 1 China's first lunar mission launched in 2007. It orbited the moon and created a topographical map of the surface.
  • Chang'e 2 A second orbiting mission in 2011 to scout for future landing sites as well as taking high-resolution photos.
  • Chang'e 3 First unmanned moon landing of the Chang'e effort. The lander with Jade Rabbit touched down in 2013, making it the first soft landing on the moon since 1976. Despite some technical issues, the rover functioned until 2016 when it was officially declared dead.
  • Chang'e4 China's current mission to explore and research the far side of the moon.
  • Chang'e 5 Future mission slated for 2019 to collect and return lunar rocks and soil.

It may also carry plant seeds and silkworm eggs, according to Xinhua.

Chang'e is the goddess of the Moon in Chinese mythology.

China conducted its first crewed space mission in 2003, making it only the third country after Russia and the US to do so.

It has put a pair of space stations into orbit, one of which is still operating as a precursor to a more than 54.43-tonne station that is due to come online in 2022.

The launch of a Mars rover is planned for the mid-2020s.

To facilitate communication between controllers on Earth and the Chang'e 4 mission, China launched a relay satellite earlier this year named Queqiao, or "Magpie Bridge", after an ancient Chinese folk tale.

China's space program has benefited from cooperation with Russia and European nations, although it was excluded from the 381-tonne International Space Station, mainly due to US legislation barring such cooperation amid concerns over its strong military connections.

China's program also suffered a rare setback last year with the failed launch of its Long March 5 rocket.

AP

Topics: science-and-technology, the-moon, spacecraft, space-exploration, astronomy-space, china

First posted December 08, 2018 12:17:53

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