"This Is America" beat out "Shallow," "God's Plan" and other big hits. The Grammy for song of the year honors song writers, while record of the year goes to the recording artist.
The song caused a stir last May when Gambino released its ambitious video, which was full of racial symbolism.
The Recording Academy has made an effort to diversify its membership amid complaints the Grammys have frequently failed to recognize rap and hip-hop artists in the major categories.
It's unclear if Childish Gambino's wins on Sunday change that.